As service members get closer to the end of their military career, many start to think about what is next. Maybe it’s a new job, maybe it’s going back to school to pursue a degree, maybe it’s entrepreneurship. Some even embrace full retirement.
The type of military discharge that service members receive may impact what paths are open to a new veteran after their military service is over.
There are a number of conditions under which a veteran can leave the military, whether it is at the end of a long career or just a few years of service.
8 Types of Military Discharge
- Honorable Discharge
- General Discharge
- Other Than Honorable Discharge
- Bad Conduct Discharge
- Dishonorable Discharge
- Entry-Level Separation
- Medical Separation
- Separation for Convenience of the Government
The first 3 (Honorable, General, and Other Than Honorable) are administrative, even though they may be the result of some misstep on the part of the service member.
The next 2 (Bad Conduct and Dishonorable) are punitive, meaning that they are the result of misconduct, criminal behavior, or even felony behavior on the part of the service member.
The last 3 (Entry-Level Separation, Medical Separation, and Separation for Convenience of the Govt.) are each unique:
Entry-Level Separation: Is a type of discharge that occurs at the beginning of ones career before it even got started. Think of someone that gets booted from boot camp before graduation.
Medical Separation: Are those that become so sick or injured, that they can no longer continue their military service.
Separation for Convenience of the Government: Is a very rare type of discharge, we’ll get into this in more detail below.
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What is an honorable discharge?
For those who separate or retire from the military after doing well during their time in service can expect an honorable discharge.
Following a career of faithful military service, the member is almost always given an honorable discharge.
How do you get an Honorable Discharge?
To receive an honorable discharge, a service member has to have fulfilled the obligations set forward in their contract and met (or even exceeded) all of the qualification requirements they needed to meet.
This type of discharge means that the service member completed all of their requirements and did not get in any trouble with the Uniform Code of Military Justice, the military’s laws and policies.
While a letter of reprimand, official counseling, or other minor infraction will rarely impact a service member’s career to the point of changing their discharge classification, it is still critical to strive for the exemplary record that merits an honorable discharge.
What are the benefits of an honorable discharge?
Those who separate or retire under an honorable discharge will receive all of the benefits available to veterans.
Depending on their length of service, this can include retirement pay, GI bill benefits, medical and dental coverage, and home loan assistance.
Other benefits include disability compensation (based on a medical evaluation at the time of separation), employment assistance, and federal hiring preferences.
There are also numerous private organizations that offer assistance to veterans with an honorable discharge.
What is a General Discharge?
Another type of military discharge you may hear about is what’s known as a General Discharge.
A general discharge may or may not mean that the service member did something wrong. It is not punitive but does mean that some particular condition or circumstance warranted the member’s separation from the military.
A general discharge would not be considered bad, but it’s also not ideal.
The exception to this would be a ‘General Under Honorable Conditions’, which is considered ideal.
How do you get a General Discharge?
Nonjudicial punishment most often results in a general discharge, under honorable conditions.
This means that if a service member does something that warrants punishment under the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) but does not break a civilian law.
Examples of things punishable under the UCMJ include:
- Failure to maintain physical standards
- Failure to meet professional qualification requirements, and
- Any other failure to meet a military standard.
Related Article: Army Height And Weight Standards
What are the benefits of a general discharge?
The conditions under which the discharge was given is included on the service member’s DD-214, the document which outlines the specifics of their separation from military service.
It is possible that a general discharge can be upgraded, provided that it goes through a formal appeal process and is approved for the upgrade.
This includes the ability for family members to change the classification posthumously.
A general discharge allows the service member to use the majority of veteran’s programs.
- Veteran’s hiring preferences for federal jobs
- VA medical coverage
- VA home loan
However, there are some downsides to a general discharge.
The recipient may not be eligible from future military service depending on the specifics laid out in their DD-214.
The GI Bill education benefit is the only absolute benefit not awarded to service members with a general discharge. This benefit is reserved for those with an honorable discharge.
What is an Other Than Honorable discharge?
An Other Than Honorable, or OTH, discharge is administrative rather than punitive but are usually awarded when the service member has done something that merits punishment under the military’s UCMJ.
How do you get an Other Than Honorable Discharge?
Items punishable under the UCJM but are not considered serious civilian crimes often result in an other than honorable discharge.
These include things such as:
- Security violations
- Use of violence
- Drug or Alcohol abuse
It may include instances where the service member serves time in a civilian prison for an offense.
What are the consequences of an other than honorable discharge?
Most of the time, those receiving an OTH discharge are not able to rejoin the military in the future.
Other veterans benefits are most often not available, although an other than honorable discharge is still considered administrative.
What is a bad conduct discharge?
A bad conduct discharge, nicknamed a “big chicken dinner” in the military, is given following a Court-Martial, the military’s version of a trial.
It is generally given when the service member has done something wrong and is punitive in nature.
How do you get a Bad Conduct Discharge?
A bad conduct discharge is the result of a crime that is taken to military trial.
There are two types of Courts-Martial: a General Court-Martial and a Special Court-Martial.
Service members often have to deal with a period of confinement following their Court-Martial and before their discharge.
What are the consequences of a bad conduct discharge?
Military members who receive a bad conduct discharge are ineligible for GI Bill benefits, VA housing programs, and are unable to join any branch of the military in the future.
Most of the veteran’s benefits are forfeited with a bad conduct discharge.
What is a dishonorable discharge?
A dishonorable discharge is considered the worst type of military discharge. It is the result of a serious crime, such as a felony, and is almost always awarded following military confinement.
Related Article: Can You Join The Military With A Felony?
How do you get a Dishonorable Discharge?
A dishonorable discharge is given in the most serious circumstances. It is another type of punitive discharge, meaning that it is the result of misconduct of the military member.
Examples of crimes that warrant a dishonorable discharge include:
- Sexual assault
A dishonorable discharge is given after a General Court-Martial.
What are the consequences of a dishonorable discharge?
Those receiving a bad conduct discharge are not able to use any veteran’s programs; this includes medical and dental benefits, VA housing programs, and the option to serve in the military in the future.
A dishonorable discharge also comes with a loss of personal civilian rights, such as the right to own a firearm.
Click Here to read more about the consequences and reasons for dishonorable discharge.
What is an Entry-Level Separation?
An entry-level separation is a type of military discharge that happens very early on in ones military service.
It’s given to individuals who have not completed a minimum of 180-days of service, and technically isn’t considered good or bad.
How do you get an entry-level separation?
An entry-level separation happens when you’re not conforming to military norms, or adapting to military training programs.
- Not meeting the physical fitness requirements
- Not showing any effort to complete the training
- Failing to progress sufficiently
- Having a hard time adapting to military life
This type of military discharge is suitable for those that believe joining the military as a mistake, and want out.
What are the consequences of an entry-level separation?
As mentioned earlier, an entry-level separation is really a neutral type of discharge.
It’s nowhere near the severity of a bad conduct or dishonorable discharge, but it’s also not even close to an honorable or general discharge.
Probably the biggest consequence of getting an entry-level separation is future employment.
While it isn’t likely to have a negative impact on future employment opportunities, some potential employers may look at this type of discharge in a negative light.
For example, they may think that, because you couldn’t conform to military procedures or life, that you may not conform to their business.
What is a Medical Separation?
A medical separation is a type of military discharge that stems from a soldier, sailor, or Marine having a physical or mental condition that affects their ability to serve.
This discharge is determined via the 2 medical review boards: Medical Evaluation Board (or MEB) and Physical Evaluation Board (PEB).
Typically, a Soldier, Sailor, Marine, or Airmen will present themselves to the board seeking a medical separation.
With that said, the commanding officer of the persons unit can also initiate this process without the input of the person serving.
How do you get a medical separation?
There are a wide variety of conditions that can cause a medical separation. They include (but are not limited to):
- A physical injury that prevents the servicemember from performing his or her duties.
- A mental condition that prevents the servicemember from performing his or her duties.
Factors that determine whether or not you’ll receive a medical separation include the ability to perform your job, stability of the disabling condition, years of active service (pre-existing conditions only), and rating percentage.
The review boards mentioned above determine all of this.
What are the consequences of a medical separation?
Unlike the other types of military discharge in this article, the ramifications of a medical separation differ wildly.
You could either be retired from the military with full benefits and pension, or you could lose any and all privilege’s.
OMK will be posting an article on medical separation in the military, and will post a link to that article here soon.
So stay tuned!
Separation for Convenience of the Government
This particular type of military discharge is very rare, accounting for less than 1% of all discharges.
It’s so rare that we almost decided to not even include it!
With that said, we figured it would be prudent to at least mention the very basics of it.
According to the US Army, Separation for Convenience of the Government happens when none of the other discharges above are suitable.
How do you get a Separation for Convenience of the Government?
While there are many reasons why you could receive this type of discharge, the most common are the following:
- Involuntary separation due to parenthood
- Diagnosis of a Personality disorder
- Other designated physical or mental conditions
For ‘Involuntary separation due to parenthood’, it basically means that the serviceperson cannot complete their duties due to family responsibilities.
‘Diagnosis of a personality disorder’ happens when a serviceperson develops a mental disorder while serving in the military.
An example of this would be a serviceperson developing paranoia or schizophrenia sometime during their service.
‘Other designated physical or mental conditions’ is a broad characterization.
Essentially, it means that a serviceperson developed a physical or mental condition that is not technically characterized as a disorder.
An example of this would be someone in the Navy developing chronic seasickness, and unable to overcome this condition normally.
What are the consequences of Separation for Convenience of the Government?
Typically, Soldiers, Sailors, Airmen, and Marines that are diagnosed with any of the above will receive either an honorable or general discharge (although not always).
This means that they will not receive any negative consequences from getting this type of discharge.
Frequently Asked Questions
Have questions about the various types of military discharges?
Here are the answers to a few questions that are commonly asked about military discharges, circumstances that result in separation from the military, and how to read the related documents.
Can I upgrade my discharge to something better?
Sometimes, a service member is able to appeal a discharge classification using a DD Form 293.
The appeals process offers the chance for the military member or their family to make a case to upgrade the discharge status. It must be done within 15 years of the discharge.
This could be due to inaccuracies in the report or unfair practices that resulted in the discharge. The specific requirements laid out by the military is that the discharge is “inequitable or improper.”
During the process, the service member has the option to be represented by counsel or to represent themselves, either in person or through the written process.
It should be mentioned that the majority of appeals are not approved. Working with an experienced attorney may help, but the circumstances of the discharge are often upheld.
Is an Other Than Honorable discharge considered bad?
An Other Than Honorable discharge is administrative in nature but does come with some restrictions on veteran’s benefits.
It is the most serious type of administrative discharge.
While it may not come with jail or prison time, it is considered bad within the military and may be viewed similarly by potential employers.
Because it is often the result of misconduct on the part of the service member, they should be prepared to explain what led to their separation from the military under an Other Than Honorable discharge.
This is particularly true for federal employment, as potential employers will ask for their DD-214.
Is a medical discharge considered honorable?
A medical discharge is usually a type of general discharge, with the exact circumstances listed specifically on the service member’s DD-214.
Medical-related discharges vary the most, as the severity and circumstances under which the condition began can impact the type of discharge a service member will receive.
Most receive an honorable or general discharge, under honorable conditions. This can be the case even if the injury or illness was sustained outside of the scope of official military duties.
A Medical Review Board looks at each individual case to determine the most appropriate course of action, including which type of discharge is warranted, should the member need to be separated from the military.
When the medical condition is identified immediately following the service member’s entry to the military and is deemed a pre-existing condition, it is more likely that the member will receive a general discharge, with the exact reason specified.
Because most veteran’s benefits are available for those with general discharges, discharge resulting from a medical condition is not seen as punitive.
This distinction is most critical when the military member needs ongoing medical care as a result of their condition, such as mental health care or physical rehabilitation.
It can also be a factor in determining disability compensation. Military members should have all medical ailments accurately documented in their record, but especially so when the injury or illness results in their separation from military service.
Will my discharge classification show up on my DD-214?
Yes, an official discharge classification is included on a service member’s DD-214.
Many potential employers, especially those in the federal government, will request a copy of the service member’s DD-214.
In the cases of punitive discharges, such as bad conduct or dishonorable discharges, the service member may be required by law to disclose the fact that they were convicted of a felony or served time in prison.
In addition to discharge classification, the DD-214 provides the following information:
- Date and place of entry into active duty
- Home address at time of entry
- Date and place of release of active duty
- Home address after separation
- Last duty assignment and rank
- Military job specialty
- Military education
- Decorations, medals, badges, citations, and campaign awards
- Total creditable service
- Foreign service credited
- Separation information (type of separation, character of service, authority and reason for separation, separation and reenlistment eligibility codes)—This is the section where discharge information is included.
All of this information is included to make sure that the military member’s service is classified and quantified correctly. It is important to review this document for accuracy prior to separating, as making changes later can be a tedious, drawn-out process.
The DD-214 is used to determine eligibility for other veteran’s benefits, such as the GI Bill education benefit, which requires a certain length of active duty service for full benefits on top of requiring an honorable discharge.
It is critical that all military members and their families know and understand the different types of military discharges. Should they face punitive action for misconduct at a Court-Martial, an experienced lawyer can help navigate the process.
It is also important that veterans understand the benefits that they are eligible to receive based on the characterization of their separation from military service. Things such as medical and dental treatment, housing programs, and education benefits are all impacted by the type of discharge a veteran receives.